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Quantum Effects at Macroscopic Scale

This course proposes an introduction to spectacular macroscopic manifestations of quantum physics in matter. In a first part, we will introduce the physics of superconductivity, superfluidity and condensates. At very low temperatures, various mechanisms can lead to macroscopic collective quantum states which have surprising properties such as zero-electrical resistance, magnetic levitation or absence of viscosity. We will show how a common phenomenon can give rise to these properties in very different systems such as boson gas, liquid helium or metals. In the second part of the course, we will show how the common classical law of electricity are modified at the mesoscopic scale where quantum effects do play an important role and may have macroscopic consequences. Finally the last part of the course will be devoted to an introduction to important modern applications of quantum mechanics in quantum communications and quantum computing which are very active fields at the crossroads between many disciplines such as information theory, mathematics and material science. This course will be based on many recent discoveries in this field which is one of the most active and innovative area in condensed matter physics today.

Syllabus : " Quantum Effects at Macroscopic Scale "

- Lectures 30 hours, Tutorials 20 hours (2nd Semester) -

(Pascal Simon, Meydi Ferrier)

Chapter 1:
Superconductivity, superfluids and condensates
Bose-Einstein Condensation and superfluidity
Superconductivity: macroscopic aspects, microscopic theory, thermodynamics

Chapter 2:
Mesocopic physics
Quantization of conductance
Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems
Magnetism and persistent currents in mesoscopic rings
Josephson effect

Chapter 3:
Introduction to quantum information
Quantum Information : History, objectives, perspectives
Quantum bits and Bloch sphere
Simple examples of quantum computation
Quantum teleportation and EPR paradox

Recommended textbooks:

  • Principles of Condensed Matter Physics (P. M. Chaikin and T. C. Lubensky)
  • Superconductivity, Superfluids, and Condensates (J F Annett, Oxford Master Series in Condensed Matter Physics)
  • S. Datta, Quantum Transport: Atom to Transistor, Cambridge University Press, New York (2005)
  • M. Le Bellac, A short introduction to Quantum information and quantum computation, Cambridge University Press
  • M. A. Nielsen, and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information, Cambridge University press (2000)

Course prerequisites and corequisites

The prerequisites are usually taught at the level of the third year of university: Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics (Book : Quantum Mechanics by C. Cohen-Tannoudi, B. Diu, F. Laloƫ - vol. I and II, Ed Wiley).

In order to follow this course, it is strongly encouraged to also take in parallel the Major course in Condensed Matter Physics.

Course concrete goals

On completion of the course students should be able to:

— Take more formal courses at the level of second year of Master covering advanced concepts used in Solid State Physics, Quantum physics, Nanoelectronics (M2 Fundamental Concepts in Physics, M2 Nano, etc...)
— Be acquainted with the basics of superconductivity, superfluidity and quantum transport at the nanoscale
— Know how quantum mechanics can help to transmit information in a more secure way.