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Additional Lectures from Specific Programs

A course from "Ecole Polytechnique"

Title: "Nanomaterials and Electronic Applications" (code: PHY564B)

Description: 36h / 4 ECTS during the 2nd Semester. See the attached document called "PHY564B" at the bottom of this page.

Location: Room called "PC" (Petite Classe) Number 8 [free access]. This Room is in the middle of the "couloir du lac" (corridor parallel to the small lake) and is accessible either from the big hall [via a little path] or via the scola corridor (orthogonal to the other mentioned corridor).

Organisation: Course/Tutorials on wednesday morning, 8:30am to 12:45pm (2h + break + 2h), during 9 weeks + oral examination (30 minutes) on the 10th week.

Examinations: The final oral examination lasts 30 minutes per student. There is no midterm examination.

Syllabus

This module introduces recent developments in the field of semiconducting nanomaterials based on silicon or carbon, as well as their principal electronic applications.

More precisely, the following topics are addressed:

• Disordered semiconductors: amorphous, nano- and polycrystalline silicon
• Silicon nanowires: structure and synthesis
• Carbon nanotubes
• Graphene
• Characterization techniques for nanomaterials: near-field and spectroscopies
• Electronic applications: photovoltaics, flat panel displays, electronic devices, detectors, sensors, etc.

Requirements: Fundamentals of quantum and statistical physics.

Literature:
R. Ossikovski, Nanomatériaux et applications électroniques (Editions de l’Ecole polytechnique, 2018)
R. A. Street, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (Cambridge, 1991)
S. M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology (Wiley, 2002)
R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College, 2005)
S. Datta, Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems (Cambridge, 2007)
research articles, etc.

See also THIS LINK.

Courses from Master 1: MONABIPHOT

The two following courses (with respective acronyms: LMI and NLO) from the "Ecole Normale Supérieure" [ENS] can be attended.

The LMI and NLO courses take place at the ENS Paris-Saclay building, "4 avenue des
Sciences" at Gif-sur-Yvette. Bus n’9, Stop at "Moulon". See the corresponding map in the PDF file called "ENS Building" at the bottom of this page.

Light-Matter Interactions in molecular media (LMI) - 30h / 3 ECTS (1st Semester)

Teacher : Lai Ngoc Diep

Definitions and basics:
State densities, bandgap structures, excitons.

Prerequisites:
Basic mathematics necessary for electromagnetism and ordinary differential equations.

Objectives:
The aim of this course is to provide all basic information related to light, from Basics Maxwellian Optics (light propagation) to Laser and matters interactions. Particular attention will be devoted to lasers and properties of the laser beam.

Outline of the course:

- Sessions 1 to 8 -

Basic Maxwellian optics from the molecular to the macroscopic scale
Microscopic model of light-matter interaction: the elastically bound electrons and its implications. Radiating properties of an ensemble of oscillating dipoles with near-field and far-field emission.
Macroscopic level: the propagation of light in a dielectric medium, introduction to the index of refraction, Snell’s laws for the refraction and reflection of light at interfaces.
Elements of crystalline optics: Polarization states and the Fresnel equation. The dielectric tensor and the index ellipsoid. Eigen-polarization states and principal dielectric axis. Optical axis. The double-sheet dielectric surface. Ordinary and extraordinary waves.
Wave optics: Diffraction and interference.

- Sessions 9 to 14 -

Introduction to Lasers
Resonant cavity: condition, type, Gaussian beam
Semi-classical model of light-matter interaction: the case of the two-level atom. Absorption, stimulated emission and spontaneous emission. Rate equations for three and four level systems.
Introducing the laser and its major concepts: pumping, population inversion, threshold, gain and its saturation, feedback and cavities. Examples of major classes of laser (gaz, liquid, solid state),
Properties of the laser beam: particularly ultra-short laser pulses will be introduced in view of applications to time-resolved spectroscopy, nonlinear optics and multi-photon microscopy.

Evaluation method: 
Writing exam (duration: 3 hours).

Learning outcomes:
Students will be able in the wake of this course to explain different optical phenomena in their daily life as well as in their future research experiments.

Recommended readings:
« Fundamental of Photonics», Saleh and Teich (John Wiley, last edition)
« Laser Physics », Eberly and Millony (John Wiley, last edition)

NonLinear Optics (NLO) - 30h / 3 ECTS (1st Semester)

Teacher : Lai Ngoc Diep

Definitions and basics:
State densities, bandgap structures, excitons.

Prerequisites:
Optical physics and electromagnetism, Laser (BSc level).

Objectives:
First to give basics of nonlinear optics and its applications to laser technology. Second, to explore the relatively recent domain of nonlinear optics from to micro towards the nanoscale, including nonlinear effect in micro and nanostructures, nonlinear photonic crystals, as well as some far-field nonlinear microscopies and nanoscopies. Applications in physics and biology will be discussed.

Outline of the course:

• Short overview of nonlinear optics
• Introduction to nonlinear optics
general idea
reminder of linear optics
a classical model for nonlinear effects
problem solving session
• Nonlinear of bulk systems – coupled-wave theory
propagation equation
a fully treated useful example : non-resonant second-harmonic generation, phase matching and phase mismatching
problem solving session
• Second-order and third-order nonlinear optics
second-harmonic and third harmonic generation
parametric amplification, Pockel and Kerr effects, etc.
problem solving session
• Nonlinear optics in micro- and nano-structures
quasi-phase matching technique: structures 1D, 2D and 3D
nonlinear photonic crystals: perfect phase matching.
fabrication and applications of nonlinear photonic crystals
• Nonlinear microscopies and nanoscopies
what does (or does not) matter from bulk to nanoscale
multi-photon microscopies in nanophotonics and biosciences: SHG, TPFE, THG, T3FE, CARS, EO, STED, structured illumination, ...

Evaluation method: 
Writing exam (duration: 3 hours).

Learning outcomes:
The course enables the student to perform independent research in this field. In particular, students can understand, design and realize a new light wave by a frequency conversion method. Students will be able to explain and apply their knowledge of nonlinear optics to different research domains, such as physics, chemistry and biology, in particular at nanoscale.

Recommended readings:
« Nonlinear Optics » of R. Boyd

Double Degree with Tomsk

(Visit the Master web page of the Tomsk Polytechnic university)

* Radioelements in the environment (3ECTS)
* Geochemistry of living organisms (3ECTS)
* Ecological Risk (3 ECTS)
* Modern and statistical methods for environmental studies (3 ECTS)
* Ecology and ecosystem (3 ECTS)
* Chemical pollution (3 ECTS)
* Soil, subsoil and water (3 ECTS)

Attached documents